What is Pharmacogenomics
    Advancing Pharmacogenomics


    Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of the in response. Its name ( + ) reflects its combining of and . Pharmacogenomics can be defined as the technology that analyzes how the genetic makeup of an individual affects his/her response to drugs. It deals with the influence of acquired and inherited variation on drug response in patients by correlating or with and (drug , , , and ), as well as drug receptor target effects. The term pharmacogenomics is often used interchangeably with . Although both terms relate to drug response based on genetic influences, pharmacogenetics focuses on single drug- interactions, while pharmacogenomics encompasses a more genome-wide association approach, incorporating genomics and while dealing with the effects of multiple genes on drug response.

    Pharmacogenomics aims to develop rational means to optimize , with respect to the patients’ , to ensure maximum efficacy with minimal . Through the utilization of pharmacogenomics, it is hoped that treatments can deviate from what is dubbed as the “one-dose-fits-all” approach. It attempts to eliminate the trial-and-error method of prescribing, allowing physicians to take into consideration their patient’s genes, the functionality of these genes, and how this may affect the efficacy of the patient’s current or future treatments (and where applicable, provide an explanation for the failure of past treatments).

    Such approaches promise the advent of and even , in which drugs and drug combinations are optimized for narrow subsets of patients or even for each individual’s unique genetic makeup. Whether used to explain a patient’s response or lack thereof to a treatment, or act as a predictive tool, it hopes to achieve better treatment outcomes, greater efficacy, minimization of the occurrence of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). For patients who have lack of therapeutic response to a treatment, alternative therapies can be prescribed that would best suit their requirements. In order to provide pharmacogenomic recommendations for a given drug, two possible types of input can be used: or or whole . Sequencing provides many more data points, including detection of mutations that prematurely terminate the synthesized protein (early ).

    The OneOme® platform was co-developed and exclusively licensed from Mayo Clinic to bring pharmacogenomics into routine clinical care. The OneOme RightMed pharmacogenomic test is currently in use by Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine.  See the .

    In their words, “…In addition to standard characteristics such as sex, age, race, and liver function, PGx results may help your physician prescribe you the right medication. Knowing your metabolizer status for many drugs will help your physician determine which drug may work for you and reduces the trial-and-error approach. Being a “normal” metabolizer means your physician can prescribe a drug as directed by the FDA label. If you are a poor metabolizer, you may need a dosage adjustment to avoid side effects or improve the drug’s effectiveness. Your metabolizer status is determined by your genes, which never change; thus, if you are a poor metabolizer of a given drug, you will always be a poor metabolizer of that drug.”

    “Of more than 4 billion prescriptions issued each year1, about half do not work as intended.2 Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) account for up to 7% of all hospital admissions and up to 20% of re-admissions, according to estimates.3,4 ADRs are the fourth leading cause of death and are estimated to cost $136 billion annually.5 Poor compliance accounts for 33% to 69% of ADRs that result in hospital admissions.6



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